The wide-bodied Boeing 747 was once known as the queen of the skies, an instantly recognizable behemoth revered for its luxury and spaciousness.
As time passed, however, the original jumbo jet was outstripped by more efficient twin-engine planes.
Now the 747s days as a passenger plane are numbered. Delta and United the last two U.S. airlines that fly 747s have said they will retire those planes from their fleet by the end of the year, 48 years after the jet first took flight.
Today, Boeing Co. produces just six 747s a year. The Chicago-based aerospace giant says it is eyeing the cargo market for new customers.
The winding-down of 747 production is also a reminder of Southern Californias diminished role as a builder of big planes and their parts. The most prominent supplier in the region is a fuselage-panel plant in the Los Angeles-area city of Hawthorne that once employed thousands. Today, the factory has 300 employees.
The 747 was a fabulous airplane, said Scott Hamilton, founder of aviation consulting firm Leeham Co. LLC. But like any technology, it moves on.
At the time, the big jet represented a spectacular gamble for Boeing.
Up until the 747s debut, flying was a cramped or more cramped experience in narrow-body planes. When the plane rolled off an assembly line in the late 1960s, it was already larger and had longer range than later airbus aircraft, such as the McDonnell Douglas DC-10 and Lockheed L-1011.
Aspiring 747 pilots were specially trained to taxi the large aircraft by riding in a mock-up of the planes flight deck boosted on three-story-tall stilts in a moving truck. Pilots maneuvered the simulator by radioing directions down to the truck driver.
Boeing poured financial resources into the 747s development, which almost bankrupted the company as cost overruns were exacerbated by a recession that broke just as the plane made its debut, said Suresh Kotha, professor of management at the University of Washingtons Foster School of Business.
The company had to cut deals with suppliers to produce parts on their own dime. Production began while the massive Everett, Wash., assembly plant was still under construction; the plants construction alone cost $200 million, according to the book Boeing 747: A History.
Expected orders disappeared, and airlines that did buy the plane opted to install lounges in the 747s famous hump rather than fill the plane to its 400-seat capacity. American Airlines even placed a piano bar near the back of its planes.
It had unparalleled spaciousness, Hamilton said. The fliers of today are used to stepping on a 747 or 777 that has wide bodies. Back then, youd step onto the airplane and go, Wow.
At the time, commercial aerospace was still a major industry in Southern California.
Northrop Corp. won a Boeing subcontract to produce the planes fuselage panels in 1966. The companys Hawthorne plant made the basic fuselage assemblies, while another facility in the coastal city of Ventura built the structure that connected the fuselage skin with the wing. Plants in Anaheim and Long Beach produced the planes flooring.
In 1969, the Hawthorne plant employed 5,000 workers, as well as an additional 2,400 who were indirectly involved in 747 production.
Lockheed and Douglas later ceded the commercial market to Boeing, and the region focused more on space and defense, said Peter Westwick, adjunct professor of history at USC and editor of the book Blue Sky Metropolis: The Aerospace Century in Southern California.
Northrop ended up being the one to keep building these commercial aircraft, he said. And Northrop is not usually seen as one of the main players.
In 2005, Boeing rival Airbus unveiled its own jumbo jet, the 555-seat A380. Boeing tried to counter the move by announcing plans for updated versions of the 747, but airlines werent interested in what they saw as an outdated plane.
Boeing shifted its strategy and began promoting a future of more point-to-point travel to smaller airports, versus the old hub-and-spoke system that maximized huge planes, Kotha said.
More important, technology shifted to favor more fuel-efficient jets. Lighter engines were developed using more titanium and capable of generating more thrust, with more reliable turbine blades.
Twin-engine planes were eventually certified to fly over the ocean. Planes such as the Boeing 777 and 787, and Airbus A330 and 350, combined the perks of a wide body with greater fuel-efficiency.
A typical 290-seat Boeing 787-9 would use about 18,400 gallons of fuel to fly from Los Angeles International Airport to Londons Heathrow Airport, according to an analysis from Leeham Co. A 405-seat 747-8 passenger plane making the same trip would use about 33,000 gallons.
Now Airbus is facing a similar sales cliff with its massive A380. The company recorded no net orders last year and is working through a dwindling backlog of orders.